Post-hatching: critical points that affect the initial development of chickens24/09/2021
Biosecurity measures on farms gain prominence with heated market28/10/2021
The Brazilian poultry industry has been standing out among the world leaders in the production and export of chicken meat. Just last year, 13.845 million tons of chicken meat were produced and 4.231 million tons were exported. The survey made by the Brazilian Association of Animal Protein (ABPA).
It is these indexes that place Brazil today in the first position in the world in chicken meat exports and in the third position in production. Among the factors that led to this level are those related to nutrition, management, ambience and health — the so-called pillars of poultry production.
But it is not just that. These items are added to the industry modernization and organization in the vertical integration system and the differentiated condition of Brazil. Brazil has control over the main poultry diseases that compromise the production and export of chicken meat, such as avian influenza and Newcastle disease.
Thus, to help maintain this global status in the production and export of chicken meat, we underscore the importance of biosecurity in production systems as a measure that must be observed in all links of the production chain.
In other words, from great-grandparents’ poultry farms and pure lines, to the hatcheries, grandparents, broiler breeders , broilers and the final product — in addition to being important to check who supplies this entire chain: feed, raw material, and crops.
Our Technical and Comercial Director, Paulo Martins, and our Business Manager, Gilmei Antonio Balestrin, point out the 7 main factors that should be seen as investments and applied as biosecurity measures in production systems to keep birds healthy.
The main characteristics of biosecurity in broilers are:
1. Qualification & Training
It is fundamental and essential that biosecurity standards are used correctly and constantly, but this operational only exists if the conceptual is well consolidated.
This means that the company’s supervisors, owners and/or board of directors must be aware of the importance of biosecurity in all broiler production processes as a way to reduce, control or stop the spread of diseases. In addition, they have to be aware that investing in new facilities and procedures adds a lot of value to the activities!
There must be empowerment and responsibility to teams, as well as employee training. Training and recycling must be constant so that the work of the technical person in charge is not highly compromised.
After this commitment, the operational part of biosecurity comes into play, with compliance with standards, checklists, monitoring sessions, activity records, control sheets, periodic reports to superiors, among other things.
Thus, it is crucial that the poultry farm owners or the company’s board are absolutely aware that qualifying and training employees and teams is the cheapest way to increase biosecurity, reduce production costs, and increase business profitability.
2. Traffic Control of People, Vehicles, and Materials
All the flow of materials, vehicles and people, in the access to agro-industrial poultry facilities, must take place in accordance with the biosecurity procedures described by the company.
3. Visit Record
Among the activities used in poultry industry biosecurity are the forms adopted to record all visits made to the facilities. They must be monitored and continuously controlled and reviewed by those people in charge.
4. Production Structures in Ideal, Screened and Fenced Location
It is necessary to protect the poultry production from potentially transmitting agents of pathogens, such as domestic animals, wild animals and animals that live close to humans.
In existing farms, it is necessary to prioritize investments in biosecurity measures in order to increase the protection of poultry flocks. Every penny invested in biosecurity returns directly through productivity, reducing illnesses, and spending to control them.
5. Clean Production Structures and Sanitary Void
Care and frequency with cleaning equipment used during the poultry production period are recommended. As an example, we can mention the drinkers and the feeders.
It is also essential to control pests (flies, mites, rodents), the proper handling of dead birds and the broiler litter. In a publication by FACTA, the corporate technical consultant in the area of ??health, Marcos Dai Prá, mentions two possibilities for handling litter in Brazil.
A) Wet Cleaning with Broiler Litter Change
B) Dry Cleaning with Broiler Litter Reuse
The second is the most used because there is not a very high environmental liability. In this case, it is necessary to have broiler litter fermentation, with trash blanketing in the center of the litter broiler house with coverage along the entire length of the poultry facilities. Other techniques are acidification and litter alkalinization.
When there is dry cleaning with litter reuse, there will always be:
- Brushing and sweeping
- Feather Burning
- Litter Stirring
- Insecticide Use.
Among the biosecurity measures related to the cleaning and disinfection of production structures, there are the cleaning processes of the poultry facilities and the sanitary void between the flocks, to reduce the pressure of infection by agents and the risks of contamination by pathogens.
Changing clothes and shoes that are clean and sanitized must always be used when entering specific areas and on the premises of the production area.
7. Controlling the Quality of Water and Feed Consumed
Water and feed can also compromise the intestinal health of chickens. Remember that the digestive system, in addition to being the central organ of digestion and absorption of nutrients, is one of the main organs of the immune system of chickens. Any alteration or pathological condition in this system may compromise the zootechnical results and response to the immunizations of the flocks.
In addition to these 7 main biosecurity measures to be taken in broiler companies, it is important to highlight the preventive programs: laboratory monitoring, vaccine programs and use of additives that support the health of chickens, such as probiotics, prebiotics and organic acids.
In addition to contributing to the reduction and multiplication of pathogens, probiotics bring gains to broilers related to feed conversion, weight gain and, in some cases, viability. Talk to Biocamp and see which program is best for your company!
Studies that prove the importance of biosecurity — and other curiosities!
Did you know that…
The horizontal transmission present in all illnesses caused by bacteria? Furthermore, the horizontal spread of these diseases is usually rapid and the persistence for some of them is medium to high. This is shown by a study by carried out by Filip Van Immerseel and Jeroen Dewulf, from 2019.
The same thing goes for viral and other illnesses (fungal, caused by protozoa, etc.)
There is no way to face the problem without biosecurity!
The ectoparasites (mites and insects) are present in some wild birds responsible for the transmission of numerous diseases, whether bacterial or viral? In FAPESP’s research “Um Zoológico entre as Penas” [A Zoo between Feathers] (André Julião, 2005), almost a hundred parasites were identified in birds.
That’s why screening the houses is so important!
Most European countries record the presence of Dermanyssus gallinae (red chicken mite), especially those located further south, where there are hot summers. That’s why regions like the Mediterranean have more avian typhoid (AT) problems even with multiple vaccinations. Countries with a tropical climate also record a high prevalence of Salmonella Gallinarum. The load of these bacteria that Dermanyssus carry to the bird is far greater than a well-vaccinated bird can handle!
Cleaning and disinfection, in addition to the use of acaricides is essential for the control of mites!
Paratyphoid salmonellae are present in all areas of poultry production? From the protection wall, feed boxes, feeders, to the company’s tractors and the path from the employee’s house to the farm. This is what a study by Marcos Dai Prá conducted in Cascavel (PR) in 2016 points out. The material shows that the most prevalent was S. Heidelberg, found in 67% of the litter darkling beetle (Alphitobius diaperinus) on some poultry farms.
That’s why we have to not only manage the broiler litter correctly, but also clean, control pests and disinfect the house and the surroundings of the poultry farm!
Reuse of broiler litter
The greater the reuse of broiler litter, the lower the frequency of paratyphoid salmonella positivity? This is what another study conducted by Marcos Dai Prá and Victor Fernando Buttow Roll, published in 2011 points out.
The author attributes this factor to the breakdown of urea, which creates an unfavorable environment for salmonella. Other researchers estimate that this reduction is due to the increase in broiler litter microbiota, as it increases competition with salmonella.
Pest control > Rodent control
Rodent control comes after pest control? This is because rats carry a lot of parasites. If they die first, these ectoparasites invade all neighboring facilities as soon as the carcass cools.
It is important to use rodenticides at strategic points of rodent circulation, as well as periodic monitoring of control points.
1 billion bacteria
If there are 1 billion bacteria per square centimeter in a poultry house, they reduce to at most 1,000 bacteria per square centimeter after disinfection?
This is what Schlender Gerd’s 2011 study shows. With just a “simple” wash, there is already a reduction to 1 million bacteria/cm2 and, if there is a second disinfection, this number drops to 100 bacteria.
Cleaning and disinfection are essential!
Sole of the boot
A “simple” water jet on the sole of the boot exponentially reduce the risk of contamination?
This is what a study by the Universiteit Gent in Belgium shows. On a scale of reducing bacteria, there are, from worst to best, dirty boots, boots washed only with water, and boots washed and disinfected.
Pay attention to the shoes!
44 biosecurity errors
There was a study carried out in Canada in 2011 that shows the 44 biosecurity errors when entering and leaving poultry facilities? There were 883 visits made by 102 different individuals, including employees and visitors. The result:
• 27 errors (61.4%) related to mistaken transit between clean and contaminated areas
• 6 errors (13.6%) related to unsanitary boots
• 5 errors (11.4%) related to lack of proper hand cleaning
• 3 errors (6.8%) related to lack of proper use of uniforms
• 3 errors (6.8%) related to the lack of visit records
The nature and frequency of errors suggest a lack of understanding of biosecurity principles, the need to improve training and capacity on the subject for all poultry farm personnel.