Fowl typhoid: learn more about this disease that can be devastating for poultry farms14/04/2021
In favor of life, naturally09/05/2021
Fowl typhoid is one of the diseases that worry most egg producers, especially when the first heat waves start – which start in the spring and extend, often until mid-autumn.
But what are the measures that help prevent this devastating disease that can lead to the mortality of up to 80% of the flock and represent a great economic loss to the companies?
Here we talk about what fowl typhoid is, which animals are most susceptible to the disease and show the biosecurity measures that should be adopted when there is presence of fowl typhoid in the flock to neutralize the sources of infection.
However, waiting for “contamination” to arrive in order to fight it is not the best option, especially considering that the enemy spreads easily. And antibiotics, which can help decrease the death rate, are not able to eliminate the bacterium from the flock.
Once contaminated, birds remain with the bacterium and fowl typhoid can return at any time – usually in stressful situations. As no egg producer wants to live in the shadow of this possibility, an appropriate vaccination program is recommended – coupled with biosecurity measures.
The vaccination program is essential to guarantee immunity to birds and to be a potent stimulus against fowl typhoid. Live attenuated vaccines stimulate the poultry immune system to produce defense cells and antibodies against Salmonella Gallinarum (SG).
The use of live vaccines composed of SG 9R rough strain is a worldwide practice used in poultry farming to control bacterial multiplication in the poultry body.
Thus, the birds do not show clinical signs related to the infection and reduce the spread of the bacterium to the environment – either through the feces or through the carcass of dead birds.
Vaccination program with Biocamp vaccine
CampVac® SG9R is a vaccine manufactured in Biocamp modern facilities, following strict quality protocols in order to make available to the market a safe and effective product. It can be applied by intramuscular or oral route.
Nelson Haga, Business Manager here at Biocamp, explains that, in the field, vaccination programs must include, at least, two doses in the layers´ rearing phase.
“Vaccination is indicated via drinking water for early protection. This means that the first application should be done in about 5 to 6 weeks old”, he advises.
Then, in the second application, it is possible to take advantage of the handling of birds for other managements for intramuscular injection – preferably in the chest. It should occur around 14 to 15 weeks old.
In the production phase, revaccination may be necessary mainly in Brown Egg layers, animals that are more susceptible to fowl typhoid.
“In these reinforcements, oral vaccination, via drinking water, is more suitable for being practical, easy and effective”, says Nelson. They can be done at intervals of 10 to 16 weeks.
The Manager also explains that in a poultry farm that suffers from an outbreak of fowl typhoid and there is no suitable isolation between neighboring flocks or nucleus (group of poultry houses), it is important to vaccinate all birds on the farm, even if they are White Egg layers and do not show symptoms.
Some precautions must be taken to apply the vaccines:
Syringes with single or double plunger can be used. However, for those with double plunger, it is not recommended to mix vaccines nor to apply them in the same place.
Oral vaccination via drinking water
They should only be used in chlorine-free water, as it is a potent bactericide. Chlorine must be removed at least two days before vaccination – or the use of chlorine inactivators must be done before the vaccine dilution.
The birds cannot have water fast, as CampVac® SG9R vaccine is very stable at room temperature. The ideal is to provide water volume so that the consumption is made between 2 to 3 hours – at least -, ensuring access and water intake with the vaccine by the birds.
In addition, vaccines must be transported and kept refrigerated at 2 to 8°C and the application must be in line with the biosecurity measures to be effective.
CampVac® SG9R vaccine stimulates the bird’s immune system to produce defense cells and antibodies against the bacterium. The cellular immune response by T-lymphocytes is the best immune barrier to fight the disease. If you want to keep your farm away from fowl typhoid, count on Biocamp in your farm’s vaccination program.