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One of the smallest bacteria found in nature is Mycoplasma gallisepticum, also known as MG. It infects poultries horizontally, causing a huge economic prejudice to poultry farms.
This is because bacteria easily enters upper respiratory ways of the poultries and causes mycoplasmosis, a disease which affects respiratory and reproductive systems, with loss of production and quality of the eggs.
In dry and cold periods, such as winter, poultries are more likely to have respiratory problems, which can evolve to a chronic stage of the disease.
What is need to know about Mycoplasma gallisepticum
MG is the acronym for Mycoplasma gallisepticum, one of the smallest bacteria existent in nature and which causes mycoplasmosis. The first report and description of the disease in poultries came after a pneumonia in turkeys in England, in the year of 1905.
The transmission can be vertically or horizontally.
- Vertical transmission: it occurs from the breeder to the progeny, by fertile contaminated eggs.
- Horizontal transmission: it occurs from the infected or sick poultry to the healthy one.
Horizontal route is the main way of dissemination of the disease, it can be through aerosol, feather and even by equipment or people. This is how negative flocks can be contaminated by positive flocks – and for this reason isolation and hygiene measures are so required.
How do I know if my poultry farm has Mycoplasma gallisepticum?
The easiest clinical signs to identify are those related to commitment of the respiratory system: cough, sneezing, sinusitis, wheeze, nasal discharge and respiratory difficulty.
Regarding signs involving reproductive system, these are more difficult to see, but are the ones which silently affect production and quality of egg shell.
The help of a poultry pathology laboratory is very important in the diagnosis of the presence of MG in the poultries.
Impacts of mycoplasmosis in the breeding stock
Mycoplasmosis causes a huge economic prejudice to poultry farms because it reduces the quantity of eggs and worses shell quality. There is a loss of 10 to 15 eggs per poultry, in the end of the production cycle, due to an increase of eggs without shell, with thin, cracked and broken shell – which are called second-line eggs.
In this video, you can follow the details on how MG challenges the producers of commercial eggs and how vaccination is a strong ally.
In addition, the disease causes lesions in air sacs, and facilitates other pathologies: chronic respiratory disease (CRD), E. coli, IB (Infectious Bronchitis), Coryza, Pasteurellosis, for example.
What should I do to protect my poultry farm?
There are two manners to avoid the presence and/or proliferation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in poultry farms. The first one is the use of antibiotics, but the action is limited, short and superficial.
This is because MG can host in sites where drug does not reach, the air sacs. The site is low vascularized and, therefore, with low reach for antimicrobials. In addition, the frequent and indiscriminate use of antibiotics can induce the development of resistance of MG and other bacteria to these products.
The second one – and most efficient – is vaccination. Three types of vaccines are available:
- Attenuated live vaccines: naturally attenuated MG strains, which were isolated in the field and worked for use as vaccine.
- Recombinant live vaccines: those containing insertion of the structure part of the MG in a vaccine viral vector.
- Inactivated vaccines: MG is inactivated and mix in an oily vehicle.
Which vaccine should I use in my breeding stock?
It is scientifically proven that vaccine with F strain is the one which better protects the poultries against big challenges by Mycoplasma gallisepticum. It induces protection of tracheal mucosa, air sacs and reproductive system, assuring the productivity of the laying hens.
In Biocamp, we have developed CampVac® MG-F for use in breeding stocks of commercial laying hens. Vaccine promotes protection of breeding stock of the poultry farm, decreasing respiratory signs and stability in production for long periods.
The best results are obtained when the vaccine is administered preferably by ocular route, with one or two doses in the rearing phase – between 5 and 12 weeks old, before infection of the birds. The vaccine can also be administered via spray, but it requires major cares in the application. The drinking water via should be avoided.
To control mycoplasmosis in commercial laying hens, a biosecurity and immunization program by CampVac® MG-F is fundamental. Thus, poultries are kept healthy – as well as their productivity is kept high. Talk to Biocamp!